Hyphenated Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

Dr. Akhil P S
Department of Chemistry, MSc Chemistry
  • 24 students
  • 0 lessons
  • 0 quizzes
  • 10 week duration
24 students

Modern analytical technique referred to as hyphenated techniques, originate from the traditional use of molecule or element specific detection in chromatography. Hyphenated techniques combine chromatographic and spectral methods to exploit the advantages of both. Chromatography produces pure or nearly pure fractions of chemical components in a mixture. Spectroscopy produces selective information for identification using standards or library spectra. These hyphenated techniques offer shorter analysis time, higher degree of automation, higher sample throughput, better reproducibility, reduction of contamination because it is a closed system, Enhanced combined selectivity and therefore higher degree of information. The remarkable improvements in hyphenated analytical methods over the last two decades have significantly broadened their applications in the analysis of biomaterials, especially natural products.

This course will provide students with a background in modern analytical techniques in chemistry with an emphasis on instrumentation.

Course objectives:

To reinforce chemical principles central to advanced analytical techniques in chemistry.

To introduce instrumental techniques for chemical measurement.

To develop critical thinking for interpreting analytical data.

To select instrumentation appropriate to the measurement need.


  • This course covers modern analytical techniques in chemistry which is a standard part of postgraduate chemistry curriculum.

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  • Introduction to Chromatography

    Classification of different chromatographic methods, methods of development-Elution development, Gradient elution development, displacement development, and frontal analysis. Principles of chromatography, different migration, adsorption phenomena, partition, adsorption coefficient, retardation factor, retention time and volume, column capacity, temperature effects, partition isotherm. Dynamics of chromatography-efficiency of chromatographic column.

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  • Gas Chromatography

    Theory, Instrument description of equipment and different parts, columns (packed and capillary columns), detector specifications-thermal conductivity detector, flame ionization detector, electron capture detector, nitrogenphosphorus detector, photo ionization detector, programmed temperature gas chromatography; applications in the analysis of gases, petroleum products etc., other detectors used their Principles and Applications. GC-MS – Introduction Instrumentation – GC – MS interface – Mass spectrometer (MS) Instrument operation, processing GC – MS data – ion chromatogram Library searching – Quantitative measurement – sample preparation Selected ion monitoring – Application of GC-MS for Trace constituents. Drugs analysis, Environmental analysis and others.

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  • Liquid-Liquid Partition Chromatography

    Principle, supports, partitioning liquids, eluents, reverse phase chromatography, apparatus, applications High performance liquid chromatography: Theory, Instrument description of the different parts of the equipment, columns, detectors-UV detector, refractometric detector, Fluorescence detector, Diode Array detector, applications in the separation of organic compounds, names of other detectors used their Principles and Applications. LC-MS – Introduction – Instrumentation – liquid chromatography – Mass spectrometer Interface – Instrumental details – Processing LC-MS data – ion chromatograms – Library searching – Quantitative measurements. Sample preparation – selected ion monitoring. Application of LC-MS for Drug analysis, Environmental samples and others.

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  • Mass Spectrometry

    Molecular ion: Ion production methods (EI). Soft ionization methods: SIMS, FAB, CA, MALDI-TOF, field desorption electrospray ionization,fragmentation patterns (polyenes, alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes and ketones, esters), nitrogen and ring rules, McLafferty rearrangement and its applications, HRMS, MS-MS, LC-MS, GC-MS.

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