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INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS
Basic concepts- system, surroundings, types of systems. Extensive and intensive properties, macroscopic properties. State functions and path functions. Types of Processes
ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacities at constant volume (Cv) and at constant pressure (Cp), relationship between Cp and Cv.
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYMANICS
–Mathematical statement of first law. Reversible process and maximum work. Calculation of work, heat, internal energy change and enthalpy change for the expansion of an ideal gas under reversible isothermal and adiabatic condition.
The Joule-Thomson effect – derivation of the expression for Joule-Thomson coefficient. Sign and magnitude of Joule-Thomson coefficient, inversion temperature. Liquefaction of gases.
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Limitations of first law – Different statements of IInd law, Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Carnot theorem.
Concept of entropy – Definition and physical significance. Entropy as a function of volume and temperature, Entropy as a function of pressure and temperature. Entropy as a criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium.
Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies and their significances- criteria of equilibrium and spontaneity. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, dependence of Gibbs free energy change on temperature, volume and pressure.
THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Statement of Third Law Of Thermodynamics-determination of absolute entropies of substances.
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